STA 2023                     Introduction to Statistics I, Course Outline             Spring 2000


  1. Introduction (1.1 - 1.6)*; Relative frequency distributions and histograms (2.2); Summation notation (2.3); Measures of central tendency and variability (2.4-2.5); Omit (2.1).
  2. Interpreting standard deviation; Rare events and statistical inference, percentiles, z-scores (2.6-2.7); Omit (2.8-2.10).
  3. Sample spaces, sample points, events, and the probability of an event (3.1); event composition (3.2); Mutually exclusive events, the Additive Rule (3.4); Complementary events (3.3); Conditional probability (3.5).
  4. The Multiplicative Rule, independence (3.6); Omit (3.7-3.8); Review (if time is available).
  5. Random variables and probability distributions (4.1-4.2); Expected value and variance of discrete random variables (4.3).
  6. Binomial random variables, mean and variance of the binomial distribution, binomial tables (4.4); Omit (4.5-4.6).
  7. Continuous random variables (5.1); Normally distributed random variables, table of the standard normal distribution (z-table) (5.3); Omit (5.2).
  8. Normal approximation to the binomial distribution (5.5); Omit (5.4, 5.6); Review (if time is available).
  9. Sampling distributions, properties of estimators (6.1-6.2); The sampling distribution of the sample mean, the Central Limit Theorem (6.3).
  10. Large sample confidence interval for a population mean (7.1); Large sample confidence interval for a population proportion (7.3); Determining the sample size (7.4).
  11. Hypothesis testing (general considerations) (8.1); Large sample hypothesis test for a population mean (8.2).
  12. Observed significance levels (8.3); Large sample hypothesis test for a population proportion (8.5); Review (if time is available).
  13. Small sample inferences about a population mean (7.2, 8.4); Omit (8.6-8.7); Large sample inferences concerning the difference in two population means based on independent samples (9.1).
  14. Small sample inferences concerning the difference in two population means based on independent samples (9.1); Design and analysis of the paired difference experiment (9.2).
  15. Large sample inferences concerning the difference in two population proportions (9.3), Review (if time is available).

*Numbers in parentheses indicate chapter and section numbers. For example, (1.2) represents Chapter 1, Section 2.


Inference, in the form of estimation, decisions, and predictions, plays a vital role in everyday life as well as in organized research. In many cases, a knowledge of statistics will allow a quantitative assessment of the risk involved with each inference and, hence, improve the basic knowledge of inference-making procedures for undergraduates with diverse academic backgrounds. STA 2023 is designed as both a terminal course for those not likely to be intimately involved in research in their academic fields, and as an introductory course for those who are.

REQUIRED TEXT: Statistics (Eighth Edition) by James McClave and Terry Sincich (Prentice-Hall, 2000). Since there are many differences between the eighth and previous editions of the text including new sections, new discussion, new notations, new problems, and rearranged topics, it is imperative that the student have the eighth edition of the text.


Can be summarized under six headings:


This class meets four days a week (two lectures and two discussions). In the lectures the basic concepts and simple examples will be presented. Further explanation and more examples will be given in the discussion classes along with the first three exams. It is important and expected that students attend both the lectures and discussions for full comprehension of the material. Students must attend the lecture and discussion section that they are registered for. There will be no switching of sections after drop-add is over.


Exams worth 100 points each will be given during the semester on the following dates:

EXAM I       Chapters 1-3 Tuesday, February 8, 2000
EXAM II      Chapters 4-5 Thursday, March 2, 2000
EXAM III     Chapters 6-8, except 7.2 and 8.4 Thursday, April 6, 2000

These three exams will be given during your regularly scheduled discussion classes in your discussion section classroom. The Final Exam covering Chapters 1-9 and worth 200 points will be given as follows:

    FINAL EXAM Saturday, April 29, 10:00 A.M. - 12:00 Noon

The material covered in Chapter 9 will make up roughly 50% of the Final Exam. The remainder of the Final Exam will cover Chapters 1-8. The exact location of the Final Exam will be announced by your discussion instructor in discussion class near the end of the semester. All students are responsible for knowing when and where to report for each exam. Calculators may be used during the exams, but Statistics Department regulations do not permit students to share a calculator during an exam.

Make-up exams will be given only in extreme instances and only with the advance permission of your discussion instructor. Any student who does not take an exam at the scheduled time and location without the prior consent of the discussion instructor will receive a grade of zero on that exam. If any student feels that his/her illness is sufficiently extreme to warrant a make-up exam, the discussion instructor must be provided with documentation prepared by an appropriate medical authority. We are not permitted to give the Final Exam earlier than scheduled to a student who wants to leave early due to personal reasons. Such students must take the Final Exam at the scheduled time.

All students must show a picture ID when handing in an exam. The graded version of your first exam will be returned during your Tuesday, February 15 discussion class, the graded version of your second exam will be returned during your Thursday, March 16 discussion class, and the graded version of your third exam will be returned during your Thursday, April 13 discussion class. It is important that you be present on these days so that you can receive and make a record of your scores. Your grades on the first two exams will also be reported on your third exam. If there is a discrepancy between your records and those of your discussion instructor, the discussion instructor's record will remain as official if you cannot provide the exam where the discrepancy exists.

Copies of selected old exams are available at the University Copy Center next to the Florida Book Store.


During the semester, some of the discussion instructors will be available for extra help in STA 2023 for students who:

Griffin-Floyd Hall 104 will be set aside for approximately eight periods per day, Tuesday through Thursday (except exam days), where a discussion instructor will be present to help you. We also plan to have Griffin-Floyd Hall 104 open on Monday, February 7 and Friday, April 28 for several hours. Schedules will be forthcoming soon after the beginning of the semester.


Dr. Ghosh will maintain Periods 2-4 every Tuesday as office hours SOLELY FOR ADMINISTRATIVE PURPOSES. The discussion instructors will also maintain some office hours for similar purposes. These hours will be announced in the respective discussion sections.


Your final grade in the course will be based on the total number of points amassed throughout the semester; the maximum total score is 500 points. Past experience indicates that the standard grading scheme is usually used in assigning grades:

                A = 450-500     B = 400-449     C = 350-399     D = 300-349     E = 0-299.

In any case, the numerical scores required for the various letter grades will not be higher than those given above. Plus grades will only be assigned in borderline cases. However, it is the policy of the Department of Statistics that there be no D+ grades. If you are taking the course on an S-U option, a grade of S will be assigned only if you amass enough points for a letter grade of C or better. Academic dishonesty on any exam will result in a failing grade for the course.


Homework problems are assigned from the text. Although the solutions to these problems will not be collected, it is strongly recommended that you work at least the problems given below in order to assist you in understanding the content of the course. If you have difficulties with these problems, you should work additional problems involving the same content. DO NOT WORK THE PROBLEMS WITH THE SOLE OBJECTIVE OF OBTAINING THE CORRECT NUMERICAL ANSWER. Rather, work the problem in order to understand the solution in the context of the individual problem vis-a-vis the inferential objective of statistics. This will help you to see the meaning and relevance of the concepts and procedures which we will discuss.

Note that the problems at the end of each section are divided into two groups: Learning the Mechanicsand Applying the Concepts. The first group is intended to insure your understanding of the sections' important points without adding the confusion of ``word'' problems. The second group of exercises shows you how these concepts are applied to real problems.

Chapter 1: 13, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23

Chapter 2: 12, 16, 20, 35, 36, 37, 43, 47, 49, 50, 56, 64, 70, 71, 74, 76, 81, 97, 98

Chapter 3: 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 14, 16, 17, 18, 21, 22, 23, 32, 33, 35, 37, 38, 39, 41, 43, 47, 49, 50, 52, 53, 55, 56, 57, 59, 60, 61, 99, 100, 106, 107, 108, 109, 114

Chapter 4: 3, 4, 5, 7, 11, 14, 16, 22, 27, 28, 29, 33, 36, 37, 38, 45, 47, 50, 51, 52, 93, 95, 97, 99, 101

Chapter 5: 15, 16, 18, 19, 20, 24, 25, 31, 36, 37, 39, 40, 55, 59, 60, 63, 64, 66, 68, 96, 98, 103, 104

Chapter 6: 1, 3, 4, 8, 15, 21, 24, 27, 28, 33, 37, 38, 40, 42, 43, 44, 45

Chapter 7: 1, 3, 4, 5, 10, 11, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 27, 30, 37, 42, 45, 46, 51, 53, 54, 59, 60, 61, 62, 64,66, 67, 72, 77, 79, 80, 81, 82, 89, 91

Chapter 8: 7, 18, 20, 22, 23, 25, 29, 33, 34, 41, 49, 53, 55, 56, 57, 59, 61, 67, 68, 69, 105, 106, 107, 108, 111, 116, 117, 119

Chapter 9: 1, 7, 15, 16, 19, 22, 24, 25, 29, 33, 35, 38, 42, 46, 52, 53, 54, 68, 69, 70, 71, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 100, 101, 103, 105, 107, 108, 110, 114


On the last page is a copy of the formula sheet that will be included with each exam. (Note: there will be some formulas given in class and used in the exams which are not included on this formula sheet but that you will be expected to know.) This formula sheet has been divided into sections indicating which formula could be useful for each exam. Since the Final Exam is cumulative, all the formulas could be useful for the Final Exam, not just those given in the last section at the bottom.


The Department of Statistics at the University of Florida is one of the nation's largest and leading statistics departments. The Department awards approximately 15 Bachelors degrees, 10 Masters degrees, and 2 Ph.D. degrees per year. The Statistics Department, chaired by Professor R.H. Randles, has 31 faculty members, internationally reputed for their research. We welcome inquiries about our programs. The Statistics Department's main office is 102 Griffin-Floyd Hall (telephone 392-1941, ext. 218).


Dr. Malay Ghosh is a Distinguished Professor of Statistics at the University of Florida. He received his Bachelors and Masters Degrees in Statistics from the Calcutta University and Ph.D. in Statistics from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Before joining the University of Florida, Dr. Ghosh has taught at the Indian Statistical Institute, Calcutta and Iowa State University. He has served on various national committees, and is currently a member of the Census Advisory Committee. Dr. Ghosh has lectured in many countries outside the United States including Canada, Mexico, England, France, Germany, Netherlands, Egypt, Iran, Spain, Hungary, Latvia, Brazil, Taiwan, Japan and Korea. He is the editor of Sequential Analysis, and is on the editorial board of several other national and international journals. He is an elected Fellow of the American Statistical Association and of the Institute of Mathematical Statistics, and is an elected member of the International Statistical Institute.

``We, the members of the University of Florida community, pledge to hold ourselves and our peers to the highest standards of honesty and integrity.''